Anitha M R, Tarakeshwari R, Manjushree R, and Vijayanath V: A study of selfie-taking in professional college students


Introduction

Over a period of time, technological advancement has given us a new Addiction Disorder. Selfie is a photo of yourself that you take, typically with a Smartphone/ webcam. Smartphones are no longer a communication device but serve as a substitute for the home computer and have internet-related access as well as a camera that with its high resolution now substitutes the camera. 1

A “selfie” is defined as a self-portrait photograph that a person has taken of oneself, typically with a Smartphone or webcam and then shared via social media. The word introduced in 2013 has become a household name and is even featured in the latest Oxford English Dictionary.2 Even though a rage, the phenomenon of selfie taking has never been studied in India from a scientific perspective. There has been an exponential rise in selfie taking among youth that operates a smartphone.3 Certain studies have reported selfie taking being linked to psychopathologies such as grandiosity, narcissism, and body dysmorphic disorder.4

Self esteem is conceptualized as one's positive and negative evaluations of himself or herself and, relatedly, one's approval or disapproval of the self.5, 6 It is believed that social media could enhance self-esteem, as individuals self-select how they present themselves and because they may receive social support or positive social feedback which they want. On the other hand, social media may foster low self-esteem through the inherent opportunity to compare oneself to others and the possibility that one may receive negative, or no, social feedback. Specific to posting pictures on social media,7 report that individual with lower self-esteem are more likely to remove unflattering pictures of them and are less likely to report sharing photos. Ten percent of the students in the youth “very often” edited their images using software to make themselves look more appealing and 14.3% copied famous celebrities' style of coping selfies. The desire to look a certain way can be self-destructive and lead to low, fragile self-esteem.8 The presence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents is high as reported in various studies.9

Objectives

  1. Anthropological assessment of taking selfie.

Materials and Methods

The assurance of confidentiality and anonymity will be given at all levels to all the participants. A proforma is designed to collect basic data relevant to the study. All subjects participating in the study have to have access to a Smartphone which was their own.

Study design

Descriptive and prospective.

Study population

  1. Any Professional college students

  2. Ethical committee clearance obtained.

Results

Table 1

How often selfies are taken?

How often do you take selfie

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Less than 24 hrs

4

4.0

1-3 days

4

4.0

3 days – 1 week

16

16.0

1 week – 1 month

75

75.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 2

Location preference for taking selfies

Where do you like to take selfies

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Indoor

9

9.0

Outdoor

35

35.0

Both

55

55.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 3

Selfie taken to identify location

To identify the location

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

36

36.0

No

61

61.0

3 (Roll no. 33, 96)

2

2.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 4

Selfie taken to inform other group members

To inform other group members

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

32

32.0

No

67

67.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 5

Selfie taken whenever ready

Whenever you get ready

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

28

28.0

No

71

71.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 6

Selfie taken to check picture quality

To check picture quality in a particular device/mobile

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

55

55.0

No

42

42.0

4 (Roll no. 59,75)

2

2.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 7

Frequency of posting selfies on social media

How often do you post them in social media

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

1-3 days

4

4.0

3 days – 1 week

4

4.0

1 week – 1 month

91

91.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 8

Company for selfies

Selfies taken

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Individual

8

8.0

With family

2

2.0

With friends / group

20

20.0

All the above

69

69.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 9

Usage of filters to take selfies

Will you use filters or beauty enhancing app/filters to take selfie

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

23

23.0

No

73

73.0

3 (Roll no. 30, 33, 89)

3

3.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 10

Selfies taken to seek attention

To get attention from others

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

9

9.0

No

89

89.0

3 (Roll no. 33)

1

1.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 11

Selfies taken to reduce stress

To reduce stress level

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

24

24.0

No

74

74.0

3 (Roll no. 65)

1

1.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 12

Selfies taken to enjoy environment better with selfies

To enjoy my environment better with selfies

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

33

33.0

No

63

63.0

3 (Roll no. 30, 77, 89)

3

3.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 13

Selfies taken to enhance confidence

To feel confident

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

26

26.0

No

73

73.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 14

Selfies taken to gain popularity

To increase my social status /Popularity

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

12

12.0

No

87

87.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 15

Selfies increases positivity

Selfies makes me think positively

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

17

17.0

No

79

79.0

3 (Roll no. 3, 40, 96)

3

3.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 16

Selfies taken to enhance mood

To enhance my mood

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

27

27.0

No

72

72.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 17

Looking at own selfies increase confidence level

Looking at my selfies increases my confidence

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

19

19.0

No

79

79.0

3 (Roll no 40)

1

1.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 18

Selfies taken to store memories

To store better memories

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

83

83.0

No

16

16.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 19

Selfie taken as a healthy competition with colleagues

Healthy competition with my colleagues

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

12

12.0

No

87

87.0

Total

100

100.0

Table 20

Selfie taken with an expectation of appraisal from peers

Expect appraisals from peer group members

Frequency

Percent

Not answered

1

1.0

Yes

11

11.0

No

86

86.0

3 (Roll no. 40, 94)

2

2.0

Total

100

100.0

Discussion

Clicking the selfies is the forms of identity at work in which group of the individual is either implicit or clearly enacted. One author from a study done at the Media Psychology Research Center, stated, Selfies are commonly indicating the perceptions of self or attention seeking behaviour in social dependence.10

The professional students in our study had a positive outlook toward the concept of selfies. In this study 75 students have mentioned that they click selfie definitely within one month from the previous selfie, where as the duration of clicking selfie range in the questionnaire was between 1 week to 1 month, hence the exact duration of clicking the selfie was not made out as compared to the other studies. Whereas 16 students have taken selfie between 3 days to 1week. And 4 students have clicked the selfie in less than 3 days and same number of students have clicked the selfie in a day only. In one of the studies conducted at Google reported that on an average, an adult takes 4 photos or videos a day and clicks 2.4 selfies a day while an average teen takes 6.9 photos or videos a day and clicks 4.7 selfies/day.11

Number of selfie taken out outdoor were 35 compared to indoor which was only in 9 subjects. And 36 subjects have answered that the selfie taken outdoor was to identify the location. And 32 subjects have taken these silfies to inform others that either they have reached this location or they were present at that particular location at eh given time.

Some studies noticed that identity of races are speaking about both off and online, race is a group marker and can be celebrated in a variety of ways: language, clothes, hair, music, tattoos. With this people can see and compare others who are like them and those who are not via selfies. This is consistent with the study conducted by Williams and Marquez who reported that African Americans regard selfies as a positive way to present to others of their race.12

Over the famous social network on Twitter, connecting, and engaging with others who have similar concerns, experiences, tastes and cultural practices”.13 Although closest friendship group was a correlate of selfie intensity, the commonest onmes were women and social capital affinity–social media. These variables are showing the intercorrelation and this may provide evidence of intersecting identities among women. Women have reported strong feelings of friendship and affinity with those in their social media networks, some of whom are close and others who are not well known although like-minded and similar. Women group when compared with men group have reported varying estimates of motivations for taking selfies and contexts for taking them. Which may point out that men have motives and contexts for selfies. Similarly, it may be that young men just do not choose to take selfies. Selfies are more likely to be part of being a woman in a cultural sense, especially as women show a maximum presence on social media and showing relational reasons for doing so.14

Some individuals that is about 28 have taken the selfies to inform that they are ready to move out or go out. Fiftyfive individuals have mentoned that selfie were taken to check the quality of the picture form their mobile.

As per one study conducted by Valerie Barker and Nathian Shae Rodriguez, Instagram and Snapchat were the most popular platforms. Instagram postings have shown the strongest relationship with selfie intensity; however, the data from their study convey that specific social media platforms are outlets for specific types of identity motivations for selfies.

In a study done by Senft and Baym had briefed in his study that taking selfie as a gesture that can send and may be intended to send different messages to different individuals, communities, and audiences.15

Duguay (2016) also concluded that selfies as part of a conversation, stating, “Messages communicated through selfies can feature in conversations reinforcing dominant discourses within existing publics or form counterpublics, gathering people around alternative and opposing discourses”. The clicking of selfie then act as a tool of connection and community-building via social media.16

Participants replied that taking selfies to say something about who they are, connect with others, feel better about themselves, feel empowered, and to a lesser extent, identify with others like themselves.

As per the available literature something apart from the narcissism that is often associated with selfies. Instead, it appears that selfies can be used to make a personal and political statement. Indeed, the literature suggest a complexity behind this apparently simple act. This is not to deny evidence of ambivalence about posting selfies, as demonstrated by the disconnect between estimates about one's own motives for selfies and others' motivations. That aside of the data imply that social media users value the opportunity to tell others something about themselves and to engage with others in the process by posting selfies. And this is productive on a personal level in terms of enacting identity, but also on a wider network level in connecting with others whether the common denominator is gender, race, and sexual orientation, or all of these. In selfie takers, it has been noticed that they craft their identities online and communicate them to others in their chosen audiences/communities.

Conclusion

In the present study a total more than half of the participants; students have mentioned that they click selfie definitely within a month from the previous selfie. Whereas few students have taken selfie between 3 days to 1week. This shows how often the students are taking selfies. Very few study participants have clicked the selfie in less than 3 days and same number of students have clicked the selfie in a day only. And nearly half of subjects have answered that the selfie taken outdoor was to identify the location. Some individuals that is about quarterly participants have taken the selfies to inform that they are ready to move out or go out. And more than 50% of individuals have mentioned that selfie were taken to check the quality of the picture form their mobile.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

1 

S I Chiu The relationship between life stress and smartphone addiction on Taiwanese university student: A mediation model of learning self-efficacy and social self-efficacyComp Hum Behav2014344957

2 

Oxford English Dictionary. 3rded. Oxford University Press; 2013. Selfiehttps://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199641666.001.0001/acref-9780199641666

3 

TM Senft NK Baym Selfies introduction~ What does the selfie say? Investigating a global phenomenonInt J Commun2015919

4 

KH Ende DL Lewis SS Kabaker Body dysmorphic disorderFacial Plast Surg Clin North Am20081621723

5 

S Coopersmith The antecedents of selfesteemFreemanSan Francisco (CA)1967

6 

M Rosenberg Society and the adolescent self-imagePrinceton University PressPrinceton (NJ1965

7 

S Tazghini KL Tazghini A mixed method approach to examining Facebook use and its relationship to self-esteemComput Hum Behav2013298273210.1016/j.chb.2012.11.010

8 

V Zeigler-Hill The connections between self-esteem and psychopathologyJ Contemp Psychother20114115764

9 

A Krayer DK Ingledew R Iphofen Social comparison and body image in adolescence: A grounded theory approachHealth Educ Res200823892903

10 

C Barakat Science links selfies to narcissism, addiction and low self-esteemhttp://socialtimes.com/selfies-narcissism-addiction-low-selfesteem_b146764

11 

H Peek The Selfie in the Digital Age: From Social Media to SextingPsychiatr times20143128

12 

AA Williams BA Marquez The lonely selfie king: Selfies and the conspicuous prosumption of gender and raceInt J Commun20159177587

13 

S Florini Tweets, tweeps, and signifyin': Communication and cultural performance on “Black TwitterTelevision New Media2014152233710.1177/1527476413480247

14 

H Krasnova NF Veltri N Eling P Buxmann Why men and women continue to use social networking sites: The role of gender differencesJ Strategic Inf Syst201726426184

15 

TM Senft NK Baym Selfies introduction: What does the selfie say? Investigating a global phenomenonInt J Commun2015915881606

16 

S Duguay Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Visibility Through Selfies: Comparing Platform Mediators Across Ruby Rose’s Instagram and Vine PresenceSoc Media + Soc20162210.1177/2056305116641975



jats-html.xsl

© This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


  • Article highlights
  • Article tables
  • Article images

Article History

Received : 01-05-2021

Accepted : 10-08-2021

Available online : 01-10-2021


View Article

PDF File   Full Text Article


Copyright permission

Get article permission for commercial use

Downlaod

PDF File   XML File   ePub File


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Article DOI

https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcap.2021.040


Article Metrics






Article Access statistics

Viewed: 116

PDF Downloaded: 28



Wiki in hindi