Pasha, Zeba, Sarwari, and Ahmed: A study of the dermatoglyphic pattern in diabetic subjects in Kalaburagi district


Introduction

Dermatoglyphic is the scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on the palmar region of hand and fingers and plantar region of foot and toes.1 The term dermatoglyphic was coined by cummins and midlo in 1926 and was derived from Greek words ‘Derma’ means skin and ‘glyphics’ means Carvings.2 Papillary ridges are confined to the palms and the soles and the flexor surfaces of the digits, where they form narrow parallel or curved arrays separated by narrow furrows. The epidermal ridges correspond to on underlying interlocking pattern of dermal papillae, an arrangement which helps to anchor the two layers firmly together. The pattern of dermal papillae determines the early development of epidermal ridges. This arrangement is stable throughout life, unique to the individual, and therefore significant as a means of identification.3

Diabetes has a strong hereditary background offspring of two Diabetic parents have an 80% lifetime risk of Diabetes.4 The peculior pattern of the epidermal ridges serve as diagnostic tool in a number of diseases that have a strong hereditary background. DM is one such disease with a strong genetic basis.5

In the present study finger and palmer dermatoglyphic pattern in diabetes are compared with controls. An attempt is made to determine the significant dermatoglyphic parameter criteria in DM patients which can be used in Diagnosis Mellitus.

Materials and Methods

The present study is conducted in patients of diabetes and essential hypertension attending outpatient department (O.P.D.) of HKE Society’s Basaveshwar Teaching and general Hospital, attached to M.R. Medical College Kalaburagi and students of first MBBS 2015-16 batch of department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, Kalaburagi.

Materials used

  1. Camel black ink

  2. Stamp pad

  3. Bond paper

  4. Magnifying lens (x5)

  5. Protractor

  6. Pencil and pen

Sampling procedure

Informed consent will be taken from the subjects in a prescribed format. Cummins method was used for the finger prints. Patients will be asked to wash their hands with soap and water. So as to remove any oil or dirt after that, 10 fingers are pressed upon stamp pad and impressed on a white duplicating paper, subject were asked to roll their fingers from one side of the nail to another to allow for better clarity of the impression. This was the screened with the aid of magnifying lens (5x).

Inclusion criteria

Clinically diagnosed cases of type II diabetes.

Exclusion criteria

  1. Any deformities of finger, palm and infected hand.

  2. Diseases causing secondary hypertension.

  3. Chromosoaml abnormalities like klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome etc.

  4. Deep burns of fingers and palms leading to scars.

Sample

For this study 100 patients of Type 2 diabetes mellitus are taken from Basaveshwar Teaching and general hospital at Kalaburagi and 100 normal subjects are taken from students of first MBBS 2015-16 batch of department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, Kalaburagi.

Type of study

  1. Hospital based case control study

  2. The analysis include finger print pattern and also total finger ridge count a-b- ridge count and atd angle.

Statistical analysis

In the study statistical data analyzed by SPSS 16.0 version software for quantitative data analysis, mean and Standard Deviation were calculated and for significant unpaired t-test was applied p <0.05 was considered as significant

Ink was applied to palmar region of patients hand from the stamp pad and the patient was asked to press their hands on bond paper one by one and hands were pressed the observer from above and make sure that clear prints have obtained and patient is asked to lift their hands gently.

Results

Table 1

Sex wise distribution of study samples

Groups

Males

Females

Total

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Control group

60

60.0

40

40.0

100

100.0

DM group

58

58.0

42

42.0

100

100.0

Hypertension Group

63

63.0

37

37.0

100

100.0

Total

181

60.3

119

39.7

300

100.0

X2 (chi-square) TEST P-Value

X2 (chi-square) = 13.17   P<0.001   highly significant

Table 2

Comparison of right palmer dermatoglyphic pattern between DM group and control group

Dermatoglyphi C Pattern

DM Group

Control Group

t- test value

P-value & significance

MEAN ± SD

MEAN ± SD

UL

1.42 ± 1.40

2.63 ± 1.29

t = 6.34

P=0.00,   HS

RL

0.02 ± 0.14

0.05 ± 0.22

t =1.12

P=0.251,   NS

WHORL

3.41 ± 1.52

2.07 ± 1.41

t =6.44

P=0.00,   HS

ARCH

0.14 ± 0.47

0.25 ± 0.59

t =1.45

P=0.148,   NS

ATD

39.67 ± 3.69

37.9 ± 3.58

t =3.44

P=0.001,   HS

A-B R

28.63 ± 3.56

28.20 ± 4.27

t =0.774

P=0.440,   NS

There is statistical significant difference in right palmer dermatoglyphic patterns of UL, WHORL, ATD. Between DM group and control group. There is no statistical significant difference in right palmer dermatoglyphic patterns of RL, ARCH, A-B R. between DM group and control group. Mean UL is significantly lower in DM group as compare to control group and Mean WHORL and ATD values are significantly higher in DM group as compare to control group.

Table 3

Comparison of left palmer dermatoglyphic pattern between dm group and control group

Dermatoglyphi C Pattern

DM Group

Control Group

t- test value

P-value & significance

MEAN ± SD

MEAN ± SD

UL

1.19 ± 1.34

2.65 ± 1.38

t = 8.35

P=0.00,   HS

RL

0.06 ± 0.27

0.07 ± 0.25

t =1.32

P=0.278,   NS

WHORL

3.45 ± 1.55

1.94 ± 1.57

t = 8.27

P=0.00,   HS

ARCH

0.27 ± 0.63

0.28 ± 0.62

t =0.45

P=0.575,   NS

ATD

39.31± 3.12

37.94± 3.53

t =3.62

P=0.001,   HS

A-B R

28.42 ± 3.83

28.8 ± 4.31

t =0.654

P=0.476,   NS

There is statistical significant difference in left palmer dermatoglyphic patterns of UL, WHORL, ATD. Between DM group and control group. There is no statistical significant difference in left palmer dermatoglyphic patterns of RL, ARCH, A-B R. between DM group and control group. Mean UL is significantly lower in DM group as compare to control group and Mean WHORL and ATD values are significantly higher in DM group as compare to control group

Table 4

Comparison of palmer dermatoglyphic pattern between DM group and control group

Dermatoglyphi C Pattern

DM Group

Control Group

t- test value

P-Value & significance

MEAN ± SD

MEAN ± SD

TFRC

121.67 ± 22.97

108.64 ± 22.6

t =39.69

P=0.000,   VHS

AFRC

244.55 ± 33.93

236.05 ± 35.74

t =33.2

P=0.000,   VHS

There is statistically very highly significant difference in palmer dermatoglyphic patterns of TFRC AND AFRC between DM group and control group. Mean TFRC and AFRC values are significantly higher in DM group as compare to control group.

Discussion

The association of altered dermatoglyphics pattern with T2DM was well-known as reported by several workers. In this section attempt is made to compare the observation seen in our study with previous studies conducted to compare dermatoglyphics pattern is T2DM and essential HTN.

Finger tip pattern

The present study showed increased number of whorls and decreased number of unlar loops in patients with T2DM which is in agreement with studies conducted Sant et al. (1983).6 Rakate NS et al. (2013).7

Table 5

Comparsion of finger print pattern in Type 2 diabetes

Name   of   the Study

UL

RL

Whorls

Arches

Present   Study (2016)

-*

X

+*

X

Sant   et   al (1983)

-*

X

+*

X

Rakate NS et al (2013)

-*

X

+*

X

The ‘atd’ angle

In present study atd angle was increased in both light and left palm of T2DM patients which correlates with many studies done previously like. Rakate NS et al.7 Vadgaonkar Rajnigandha (2006) et al.8

Table 6

Study

Increased ‘atd’ angle

Rt

Lt

Present study (2016)

Present

Present

Rakate NS et al (2013)

Present

Present

Vadgaonkar Rajnigandha et al (2006)

Present

Present

Total finger ridge count (TFRc) and Absolute finger ridge count (AFRC).

In present study TFRC and AFRC are increased in T2DM patients compared to controls which correlates with Barta et al.9 study, Iqbal et al. study.10

Table 7

Comparsion of TFRC and AFRC in different studies

Study

TFRC

AFRC

Present study (2016)

Increased

Increased

Barta et al (1970)

Increased

Increased

Iqbal et al (1978)

Increased

Increased

Conclusion

The dermatoglyphic patterns of 100 Type 2 diabetes mellitus are compared with 100 control group.

We observed no significant difference of sex among all 3 groups. There is increased number of whorls and decreased number of ulnar loops in type 2 DM patients. Total finger ridge count and absolute finger ridge count is increased in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients as compared to control group. ATD angle is also increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus and essential HTN patients. The above parameters can be used as a screening method. Which has a great value in the diagnosis and prevention of T2 DM.

Recommendations

  1. In this study only palm and finger print dermatoglyphic pattern were studied.

  2. A study of plantar could provide additional information.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

None.

References

1 

LH Bannister MM Berry P Collins M Dyson JE Dusek MWJ Ferguson Gray’s Anatomy. Integumental System38th editionChurchill LivingstoneNew York2000380

2 

SB Holt The Significance of Dermatoglyphics in MedicineClin Pediatr19731284718410.1177/0009922873012008051

3 

Standring Susan (chief editor): Gray’s Anatomy. In skin and its appendages39th editionElsevier, Churchill Livingstone2005174

4 

SJ Kenny RE Ausert LS Geiss M Harris Prevelance and incidence of non- insulin dependent diabetesDiabetes in America2nd edition19954768

5 

TJ David Dermatoglyphs in congenital heart disease.J Med Genet1981185344910.1136/jmg.18.5.344

6 

SM Sant AM Vare S Fakhruddin Dermatoglyphics in diabetes patientsJ Anat Soc India1983327881

7 

NS Rakate BR Zambare Comparative study of the dermatoglyphic patterns in type II diabetes mellitus patients with non diabeticsInt J Med Res Health Sci20132955910.5958/j.2319-5886.2.4.153

8 

V Rajanigandha P Mangala P Latha S Vasudha Digito-palmar complex in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitusTurk J Med Sci20063663535

9 

L Barta A Vari E Susa Dermatoglyphic patterns of diabetic childrenActa Paediatr Acad Sci Hung197011714

10 

M A Iqbal B K Sahay Y R Ahuja Finger and palmar ridge counts in Diabetes mellitusActa Antropogenetica197823538



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Article History

Received : 10-06-2021

Accepted : 16-06-2021

Available online : 06-07-2021


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https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcap.2021.021


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