Basarigidad and Ganashree C P: Correlation between haematological profile and body mass index in adults


Introduction

Obesity is defined as excessive accumulation of fat in various tissues in the body which causes ill health in the body. The basic cause of obesity is imbalance between calories intake and calories expenditure There is increased intake of calorie rich foods and reduced physical activity due to urbanization all over the world.1

Body mass index is simple formula to classify obesity in adults. It is defined as person’s weight in kilograms divided by height in meter squares (m2).

Obesity and elevated BMI are the major causes for development of chronic diseases like stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular disorders.2

Previous studies reported that obese individuals more susceptible to infections, and they have impaired granulopoiesis or reduced bacterial clearance upon infections.3 These may suggest a negative effect on immunity and defense against infection as a result of overweight/obesity.

WBC count may be associated with onset of dysregulated glucose metabolism and also early signs of liver and vascular damage, hence suggested to be an effective tool for identifying overweight children who are at risk of overweight/obesity complications. Recent studies have observed disturbances in lymphoid tissue integrity and alterations in leukocyte development and activity as a result of obesity.

PCV is the most important indicator to determine viscosity of the blood. Viscosity of the blood is good indicator of vascular risks, and increased BMI is known to increase viscosity of the blood.4

BMI is the modifiable risk factors of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the relationship between BMI and haematological profile among young Indian population.

Materials and Methods

This study comprises 200 participants.100 males and 100 females in the age group 18 to 30 years. The design for this study is cross-sectional survey. Informed consent was taken from all the subjects. Institutional ethical clearance was obtained from BMCH, Chitradurga.

Exclusion criteria

Individuals whose response from well-structured questionnaire was in the affirmative for cigarette smoker, alcoholics, pregnant, known diabetics, has endocrine disorders, peptic ulcers, human.

immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, hypertensive; or on medication for any of these diseases were excluded from the study.1

Collection of blood sample

Under aseptic precaution 10 ml blood sample taken from antecubital vein and then transfererd to EDTA tube. Then full haematological profile was taken using sysmex haematology anlyser.

The weight of the subject was measured by using weighing machine in kilograms(kg). The height of the subject was measured in centimeter without the shoes. BMI was calculated by dividing weight in kilogram by square of height in meter (kg/m2).

Table 0

WHO classification of BMI

BMI <18.5

Underweight

BMI 18.5-24.9

Normal

BMI25-29.9

Overweight

BMI >30

Obese

Statistical analysis

Subjects were grouped into underweight, normal, overweight and obese subjects. Stastical significance was determined by ANOVA. Scheffe post-hoc test was used to determine significance while pearson correlation was used to determine relationship between the variables. Data was analysed using SPSS software and presented as mean± standard deviation. Values of P ≤ 0.05 were considered significant.

Results

In our study, PCV is statistically increased in overweight and obese individuals as compared to other BMI groups in both males and females. Total leucocyte count was significantly higher in overweight and obese subjects when compared to normal subjects. We found no change in Haemoglobin concentration and RBC count in all BMI groups

Table 1

Haematological parameters of the study population according to body mass index(kg/m2)

Parameters

Underweight N=13

Normal N=117

Overweight N=47

Obese N=23

P value

PCV (%)

43.8±0.51

43.2±0.38

45.1±0.21

45.9±1.29

0.547

Haemoglobin concentration(g/dl)

13.6±1.94

13.6±1.23

13.7±1.65

13.6±2.43

0.547

RBC Count (x106 µL

4.9±0.003

4.7±0.21

4.8±0.34

4.9±1.23

0.547

WBC count(x103 µL

5.1±1.2

5.2±0.21

5.5±2.3

5.7±3.2

0.675

Table 2

Haematological parameters in males and in females according to body mass index (kg/m2) class

Parameters

Underweight

Normal

Overweight

Obese

P value

Males

N= 08

N=55

N=22

N=15

PCV (%)

44.3 ± 0.12

44.5±0.87

47.5±0.12

48.5±0.45

0.547

Haemoglobin concentration(g/dl)

14.4±1.26

14.3±1.34

14.2±2.23

13.6±2.65

0.234

RBC Count (x106 µL

5.5±1.87

5.6±2.23

5.7±1.45

5.8±1.25

0.456

WBC count (x103 µL

5.2±3.43

5.1±1.23

5.8±0.87

6.4±0.23

0.231

Females

N=05

N=62

N= 25

N=08

PCV (%)

42.6±1.23

43.5±2.23

45.7±1.26

46.2±2.35

0.654

Haemoglobin concentration(g/dl)

12.5±1.23

12.3±1.45

12.8±3.23

12.9±2.24

0.456

RBC Count (x106 µL

4.5±1.23

4.3±2.25

4.4±1.87

4.5±2.3

0.657

WBC count (x103 µL

4.5±2.34

4.7±1.45

5.1±2.34

5.4±1.34

0.345

Discussion

In our study, we found increased WBC count in overweight and obese group individuals in both males and females and it was statistically significant. It may be due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes leading to release of inflammatory leucocytes.2 Higher WBC count in obese individuals indicate an inflammatory process which has been suggested to play some roles in diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, and other cardiovascular diseases. It may even suggest the onset of metabolic syndrome in obese subjects.2

Previous studies reported that obese individuals more susceptible to infections, and they have impaired granulopoiesis or reduced bacterial clearance upon infections.3 These may suggest a negative effect on immunity and defense against infection as a result of overweight/obesity.5

WBC count may be associated with onset of dysregulated glucose metabolism and also early signs of liver and vascular damage, hence suggested to be an effective tool for identifying overweight children who are at risk of overweight/obesity complications.6 Recent studies have observed disturbances in lymphoid tissue integrity and alterations in leukocyte development and activity as a result of obesity.7

In our study we also observed that there is increased PCV in overweight and obese groups in both males and females compared to other BMI groups. Increased PCV in obese individuals is important risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases and stroke.8 PCV is the most important indicator to determine viscosity of the blood. Viscosity of the blood is good indicator of vascular risks, and increased BMI is known to increase viscosity of the blood.9 Therefore, higher PCV that was observed in obese males could be a sign of cardiovascular risk in obese males in the study. In addition, the significant association that was observed between BMI and PCV could further support the changes that may have occurred in PCV with increase in BMI.10

RBC count and Haemoglobin concentration between all BMI groups shows no stastistical significance.

Conclusion

In our study we observed leucocytosis and higher PCV in overweight and obese individual groups when compared to underweight and normal weight BMI groups. There is direct positive correlation between BMI and total leucocyte count. RBC count and haemoglobin concentration shows no statistical significance among all BMI groups. There is need for promotion of a healthy life style, regular exercise, healthy nutrition, stress free life in young population.

Source of Funding

The project was funded by an institutional research grant from Basaveshwara medical college, Chitradurga.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to Basaveshwara medical college, Chitradurga for providing facilities to conduct the work.

References

1 

AK Agarwal GD Katiyar SE Mahmood S Khan M Sharma A cross sectional study of association of anaemia with BMI in medical and paramedical studentsInt J Community Med Public Health2017412469710.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20175353

2 

OI Ajayi DB Akinbo AMJ Okafor Correlation between Body Mass Index and Hematological Indices in Young Adult Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin GenotypesAm J Biomed Sci201791384610.5099/aj170100038

3 

MR Chisale P Kumwenda M Ngwira B M'baya BI Chosamata V Mwapasa A pilot study to determine the normal haematological indices for young Malawian adults in Blantyre, MalawiMalawi Med J20152739610.4314/mmj.v27i3.5

4 

AA Al-Sufyani SH Mahassni Obesity and immune cells in Saudi femalesInnate Immun20111754395010.1177/1753425910372536

5 

PD Bonito L Pacifico C Chiesa C Invitti EM Del Giudice MG Baroni White blood cell count may identify abnormal cardiometabolic phenotype and preclinical organ damage in overweight/obese childrenNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis201626502910.1016/j.numecd.2016.01.013

6 

C Liu X Feng Q Li Y Wang Q Li M Hua Adiponectin, TNF-α and inflammatory cytokines and risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysisCytokine2016861009

7 

J Dixon P O' Brien Obesity and the White Blood Cell Count: Changes with Sustained Weight LossObesity Surgery2006163251710.1381/096089206776116453

8 

MA Farhangi SA Keshavarz M Eshraghian A Ostadrahimi AA Saboor-Yaraghi White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk FactorsJ Health Popul Nutr2013311586410.3329/jhpn.v31i1.14749

9 

Y Hashimoto A Futamura Association between leukocyte count and age, body mass index, and lifestyle-related factors: a crossectional study in Ningen dock examineesNingen Dock Int2016413943

10 

L Jamshidi A Sei Association between obesity, white blood cell and platelet countZahedan J Res Med Sci2017192e4955



jats-html.xsl

© This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


  • Article highlights
  • Article tables
  • Article images

Article History

Received : 24-03-2021

Accepted : 23-04-2021

Available online : 13-10-2021


View Article

PDF File   Full Text Article


Copyright permission

Get article permission for commercial use

Downlaod

PDF File   XML File   ePub File


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Article DOI

https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijcap.2021.020


Article Metrics






Article Access statistics

Viewed: 318

PDF Downloaded: 149



Wiki in hindi