Morphometric study of adult human gall bladder in a cadaver and its clinical importance

Original Article

Author Details : Uma Shivanal, Rajapur Parashuram*

Volume : 8, Issue : 3, Year : 2021

Article Page : 202-207

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Background: Extrahepatic biliary apparatus comprises of gall bladder, cystic duct, hepatic ducts and common bile duct. Gall Bladder is a pear shaped hollow organ, which are situated in contact with the under surface of right lobe of liver. In adult the length is between 7-10 cm, maximum breadth being 3 cm and with a maximum capacity of 50 ml. The morphological and morphometric variations of gall bladder are common. These variations are well studied and documented by the earlier studies but its precise morphological types and its incidence are utmost important during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Hence, comprehensive knowledge of variations of gall bladder will be important to avoid complications during surgical procedures and radiological interventions.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 50 liver with Gallbladder specimens obtained from 10% formalin fixed cadavers of age group 50-60 years in the department of Anatomy. The gall bladder was observed, dissected carefully and studied for its parameters i.e. length and breadth using Vernier calipers. The variations in shape, its external morphological features and its position were also noted.
Results: 52% of the gall bladder specimens had length ranging between 7 – 10cms. 68% of the specimens had transverse diameter ranging between 3 – 5cms. Various shapes observed were Pear shape, Hourglass shape, Retort shape, Cylindrical shape and Flask or Irregular shaped. The commonest shape observed and recorded in this study was Pear shaped in 26 specimens (52%). Folded fundus (Phrygian cap) of gall bladder was found in 2 out of 50 specimens (4%) and Hartmann’s pouch was found in 7 out of 50 specimens (14%).
Conclusion: The precise knowledge of the various morphological and morphometric variants of the gall bladder is important for the operating Surgeons and Radiologists. The preoperative diagnosis of these variations helps to reduce the complications like bleeding and biliary leaks.

Keywords: Gall bladder, Shapes, Hartmann’s pouch, Phrygian cap.

How to cite : Shivanal U, Parashuram R, Morphometric study of adult human gall bladder in a cadaver and its clinical importance. Indian J Clin Anat Physiol 2021;8(3):202-207

Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and Indian J Clin Anat Physiol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (

Article History

Received : 12-06-2021

Accepted : 10-08-2021

Available online : 01-10-2021

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